Roman Catholic principles of corruption in Italy
JUST Response interviews Domenico Pacitti
JUST Response: The Italian film director and poet Pier Paolo Pasolini once said of his fellow-countrymen: “They have in only a few years, especially in the centre-south, become a degenerate, ridiculous, monstrous and criminal people.” Would you agree with this?
Well, the description seems fairly accurate, though I think it can
be more succinctly expressed in the term “dead souls”. I have
in fact tried to bring this point out in previous articles. But I
don’t agree with Pasolini that it’s been a recent development.
The recent development was that Italian cinema, television and
newspapers began to monitor these grotesque national traits and to
present them graphically to a wider public – something that is,
incidentally, no longer possible in Italy now that Berlusconi has
a firm grip of the media that would do justice to a totalitarian
If it isn't a recent development, how far back does it go?
History shows that the ridiculous and monstrous degeneracy and
criminality Pasolini was referring to can be traced all the way
back through Mussolini, the Counter-Reformation and medieval times
to the decadence that set in with the fall of the Roman empire.
Machiavelli’s early 16th-century book, The Prince,
which is of course the Western world’s first classic on power
politics, was once aptly described by Bertrand Russell as a
handbook for gangsters. Dante’s 14th-century Divine
Comedy assigns appropriate circles in hell and purgatory to an
endless line of corrupt popes and politicians. Almost 2,400 years
ago Plato condemned the “bios eudaimon” he encountered on his
visit to southern Italy, which is pretty close to what we would
now call the “dolce vita”.
Can you say what some of these Roman Catholic principles are?
Pacitti: First of all, there’s the total lack of any social or moral conscience, that being the prerogative of the Church. Then there’s loose moral behaviour, since the slate can, after all, be wiped clean at confession. Another important Roman Catholic principle consists in devious methods of obtaining goals – the model there is that communication with God is not direct but via appropriate saints who have to recommend you. Nor does truth do very well – basically it is inaccessible to mere mortals since only God knows the truth. Excessive susceptibility to falsehood and illusion constitutes a further principle – Roman Catholics are indoctrinated into believing that bread and wine are quite literally transformed into the flesh and blood of Jesus Christ and consumed every single time a mass is held. Yet, incoherently, belief in the miracle does not entail belief in cannibalism. Also, there’s the overwhelming sense of guilt deriving from the doctrine that everyone is born tainted with original sin. And the list goes on.
JUST Response: And how are these Roman Catholic principles applied to corruption in Italy?
I think the principles I've just outlined speak for themselves and
I have, as you know, tried to spell out some of the consequences
in a whole series of earlier articles, some of which can be read
on JUST Response. So, to give a different example,
compatibly with this philosophy, tax evasion, undeclared cash in
foreign bank accounts, breach of building regulations and other
illegal activities are regularly “forgiven” under special
amnesties and the transgressor ends up paying the government a
fine usually amounting to much less than he would have paid had it
been done legally in the first place.
JUST Response: To what extent is the law able to combat all of this?
Despite the regulation notice in every courtroom which assures
that “The law is the same for everybody”, it isn’t. Those
who can afford to do so can, as I say, often easily pay their way
out of trouble with the right sort of legal advice. In Italy crime
is seen to pay and breaking laws has long been an art at which
Italians are past masters.
JUST Response: What about the principle of truth?
As you can imagine, the very word “truth” is anathema.
Italians like to speak of “your truth”, “his truth” and so
on but rarely of “the truth”. It’s so engrained, you
know, that it’s almost a grammatical rule. Not surprisingly, but
rather shockingly, the Italian penal code often considers truth
secondary. For example in defamation or libel cases it’s far
less important than the feudal concept of offence to a person’s
honour. So even the law itself discourages Italians from speaking
out and telling the truth.
JUST Response: Does what you are saying apply only to Italians living in Italy?
I think we should make it clear that we are talking about
corruption as it affects both Italians and non-Italians within
Italy itself. We are not talking about people of Italian origin
living outside Italy. That’s something completely different and
they shouldn’t take offence. It was often the case that their
ancestors left Italy precisely because they preferred to make an
honest living and be judged on merit. To my knowledge there’s no
evidence to suggest that corruption is genetically transmitted. So
it’s all about social and moral conditioning in Italy.
JUST Response: How do you think all of this will affect Italy's role within the EU?
Pacitti: Well, let me just take this opportunity in order to warn Europeans that Italy’s major contribution to Europe will be to teach their colleagues in other EU member states the two related arts of evading the law and legislating in order to facilitate law evasion at a later date.
JUST Response: And what about the role of the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican?
Right now as we’re sitting here talking, the pope and his
right-hand man at the head of the EU commission, Romano Prodi, are
angling for suitable explicit religious references to be included
in the EU Constitution. I think a campaign should be launched
urgently in order to avoid this at all costs. If past experience
is anything to go by, sooner or later Europeans will pay dearly
for any religious foothold in the Constitution. Also, if people
wish to believe in things for which there is absolutely no
evidence, then that should be their own private affair and should
not involve everyone else.
Note: This interview appeared in JUST Response on August 26 2003.